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Kukulcan

Kukulcan


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Kukulcan (pron. Koo-kool-kan) is the name of a feathered serpent god in the mythology and religion of Mesoamerica, in particular, the Yucatec Maya. He is also identified as the feathered serpent god Quetzalcóatl by the Toltecs and Aztecs, as Gucumatz to the Quiché Maya of Guatemala, and Ehecatl, the wind god of the Huastecs of the Gulf Coast.

Kukulcan and his other manifestations are all unified by the belief that each was considered a creator god and a bringer of rain and winds. The god is particularly associated with Chichen Itza where a large temple was built in his honour. Kukulcan is also the name of a 10th-century CE cultural hero in Yucatec Maya history, and he has a counterpart in the Toltec and Aztec histories where he carries the name Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcóatl. The feathered serpent god remains today a powerful symbol of Mexican indigenous cultural heritage.

Kukulcan & the Yucatec Maya

The Yucatec Maya were (and still are) speakers of the Yucatec language, and they settled the Yucatan peninsula in the north of ancient Mesoamerica. Their chief god was the feathered serpent Kukulcan whose name means just that: feathered (k'uk'ul) and serpent (kan). He was a creator god, and the god of rain, wind, storms, and life. Throughout Mesoamerica, the snake, because of its living habits, became a symbol for life both below and above the earth, and so it was considered a point of connection between the gods and humanity. The open mouths of snakes were identified with caves, which give access to the underworld, and their bodies are often given sky symbols in Mesoamerican art. Further, the Maya words for sky and snake have the same pronunciation. The figure first appears, albeit rarely, in carvings of the Olmec civilization, which prospered in Pre-Classical (Formative) Mesoamerica from c. 1200 BCE to c. 400 BCE. Not a great deal more is known about Kukulcan except that the god had major temples dedicated to him at Chichen Itza, Mayapan, Uxmal, and others.

Intertwined stories of mythology & migration are typical of the transference of elements of Mesoamerican culture through time & space.

In addition to the god Kukulcan, the Yucatec Maya believed that a man called Kukulcan - a cultural hero who is either a ruler or priest - had, some time in the 10th century CE (perhaps 987 CE), come to or even founded Chichen Itza in the northern tip of the Yucatan peninsula. This individual and his followers had come from the legendary city of Tula/Tollan (a name often applied to any large settlement). In some Maya legends, it was said that Kukulkan and his followers took the city by force, defeating the city's first settlers, whom the Maya called the Itza. The hero Kukulcan is also credited with founding other cities in the region such as Mayapan, which replaced Chichen Itza as the region's dominant city. Curiously, in the later traditions of the Aztec civilization (1345-1521 CE), an individual called Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcóatl (born in either 935 or 947 CE) had left Tollan, the capital of the Toltec civilization, to travel to the lands in the east. The Toltecs had preceded the Aztecs and flourished in the 10-12th centuries CE, and they were considered the founders of their culture. For both the Yucatec Maya and the Aztecs, the historical figure of Kukulcan/Quetzalcóatl brought cultural innovations and then left in peace, promising to one day return. This legend led to all kinds of future figures being identified as the great priest-ruler from Saint Anthony to the Conquistador Hernán Cortés (1485–1547 CE).

These intertwined stories of mythology and migration are typical of the transference of elements of Mesoamerican culture through the various contemporary and successive civilizations. Certainly, the two cities of Chichen Itza (in its second phase of development) and Toltec Tollan are remarkably similar in terms of layout, architecture, art, and iconography, suggesting there were historical cultural links between the Toltec and Yucatec Maya. Trade in obsidian (used for weapons) may well have been the reason the two cultures interacted but which one influenced or dominated the other is still a source of debate amongst scholars since the myths are fragmentary and they have been confused and mixed with later traditions. Further, the surviving physical evidence is contradictory. For example, wall paintings at Chichen Itza showing scenes of a naval invasion and brutal warfare do not match the story of a wise and benevolent outsider bringing peace and innovations to the Yucatan peninsula.

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Teotihuacan has the earliest representations of Quetzalcóatl, which date to the early 3rd century CE.

Quetzalcóatl - Feathered Serpent

Quetzalcóatl was one of the most important gods in ancient Mesoamerica, particularly for the Toltec and Aztec civilizations. He is also known as the Plumed or Feathered Serpent, that is, a mix of bird and rattlesnake. Indeed, his name is a combination of the Post-Classic Nahuatl words for the quetzal - the emerald plumed bird - and cóatl or serpent. Quetzalcóatl was regarded as the god of wind and rains, and as the creator of the world and humanity when he is often known as Ehecatl-Quetzalcóatl (ehecatl means wind in Nahuatl). In Central Mexico from 1200 CE, Quetzalcóatl was also considered the patron god of priests and merchants and the god of learning, science, agriculture, crafts, and the arts. He also invented the calendar, was identified with Venus, the rising morning star, and was associated with opossums. The god even discovered corn (maize) with the help of a giant red ant that led him to a mountain packed full of grain and seeds. Finally, Quetzalcóatl was associated with the nobility, rulers, and kingship, and his name was often taken to add prestige to a title, as we have seen above with Ce Acatl Topiltzin Quetzalcóatl.

Teotihuacan in the central basin of Mexico has the earliest representations of Quetzalcóatl, which date to the early 3rd century CE. These relief carvings show feathered snakes, and those at the later site of Cacaxtla include the god with rain and water. The god was often represented in architectural sculptural decoration, and he appears at other sites such as Xochicalco but rarely with any human form. Only from around 1200 CE is Quetzalcóatl given human features when he usually wears shell jewellery, yellow feathers, and a conical hat. The god sometimes wears the wind jewel (Ehecailacozcatl) which is a cross-section of a conch whorl worn as a pectoral.

Ehecatl - Wind God

Ehecatl was considered the wind aspect of Quetzalcóatl and so is another incarnation of Kukulcan. He was worshipped by the Aztecs and, before them, the Huastecs on the eastern coast of Mexico. Associated with the cardinal directions, the god was credited with giving humanity the maguey plant, a source of fibre for weaving and whose juice was fermented to make a mildly alcoholic milky beer known as pulque. According to one version of the Aztec creation myth, Quetzalcóatl took on the guise of Ehecatl and descended into the Underworld where he stole the bones of the inhabitants of the former worlds in order to create humans in this one.

Representations in art of Ehecatl-Quetzalcóatl often show him with a black body and a red mask like a duck's beak through which the god whistled up the winds. He also has long canine teeth and wears a conch shell pectoral. Unlike the typical pyramids which honour other gods, Ehecatl is usually honoured with aerodynamic wind temples, which are circular or curved at one end and topped with a conical roof. In a nod to his link with Kukulcan/Quetzalcóatl, the entrances of these temples are typically given a frame carved to resemble snake's jaws.

Gucumatz

As with Kukulcan for the Yucatec Maya, Gucumatz (or Gukumatz) was an important (but not the most important) god of the Quiché Maya (aka K'iche' Maya) who occupied what is today western Guatemala. Gucumatz, whose name means 'feathered serpent', appears in the Popol Vuh, a text which records the oral traditions of the creation, cosmology, and history of the Quiché. In the Popol Vuh, Gucumatz and the god Jurakan create the first world of the Quiché Maya, both the physical place and its inhabitants. The god was sometimes envisaged as an eagle, although in some myths he can also transform into a jaguar. In art, Gucumatz may also be represented as a conch shell, a snail or a bone flute. Gucumatz's secondary role in the Quiché creation mythology, where he appears with 12 other gods, suggests that he was an imported version of the Toltec Quetzalcóatl and the Yucatec Maya Kukulcan, and so he had to find a place in an existing pantheon. As with Kukulcan and Quetzalcóatl, the name Gucumatz was used by at least one Quiché ruler.

Chichen Itza

Chichen Itza flourished between 750 and 1200 CE, and today it is the Mesoamerican city most associated with Kukulcan. The city was likely the capital of a confederacy of Maya city-states. One structure associated with Kukulcan in his guise as the god of winds is the Caracol, an astronomical observatory built prior to 800 CE. Its impressive interior vaulting may have been designed to represent a conch shell which was an object associated with Kukulcan and most wind gods in Mesoamerica. The observatory was most likely built to track the progress of the planet Venus which was strongly associated with the feathered serpent god in all his forms.

Another impressive structure at the site is the Pyramid of Kukulcan, also known as the Castillo or Castle. Built prior to 1050 CE, the four-sided pyramid is 58-9 metres (190 ft) wide on each side and rises to a height of 24 metres (78 ft). A staircase on each side rises the nine levels to a summit where there is a small square structure consisting of two chambers. The pyramid is a marvel of architectural symmetry and design intention. Three stairways have 91 steps while the fourth has 92, making a total of 365, one step for each day of the year. Seen from above, the cross created by the stairways imposed on top of the square pyramid base recalls the Maya sign for zero. In addition, and in particular reference to Kukulcan, at certain times of the year, for example on the autumnal equinox, triangular shadows from the different levels of the pyramid are cast onto the sides of the northern staircase, giving the illusion a gigantic snake is climbing the structure built in honour of the feathered serpent god. A more conventional homage is seen in large stone snakeheads on the northern side of the pyramid. The platform at the pyramid's top was used for religious ceremonies in honour of Kukulcan which included human sacrifices, a reminder that in Mesoamerican culture the gods had to be continuously fed and appeased in order to ensure the continuance and prosperity of the human race.


Ancient Mayans: The Pyramid of Kukulkan

Large city-states developed with glistening limestone-stepped pyramids and other precisely designed buildings and ball courts. Over time, the Maya created a highly developed culture that included a written language, as well as sophisticated astronomy and mathematical skills. The city-states in the southern regions declined around 900 A.D. The communities in the northern regions fell in the 1500s to the Spanish conquistadors and missionaries who fought and eventually conquered the Maya with the advantage of guns, horses and the transmission of diseases that wiped out more than half the population.

The victors burned the ancient Mayan textbooks and records. The jungle reclaimed the cities that have slowly been excavated during the past 75 years. In addition to the remains of hundreds of ancient Maya sites, three Mayan texts survive that include almanacks, horoscopes, calendars, mathematical and astronomical calculations. One of the largest Maya cities is Chichen Itza, located on the Yucatán Peninsula in southern Mexico. The area has underground rivers that come to the surface as cenotes, large natural wells. The Pyramid of Kukulkan (also known as El Castillo, a name given by the Spanish Conquistadors) is central to Chichen Itza, it was built over a pre-existing Temple between 800 and 900 AD.

It is the biggest pyramid in Chichen Itza at its base 53.3 meters wide on all four sides. It towers above the other monuments at 24 meters tall with a 6-meter temple on top of the highest platform. Before access to the throne room of the pyramid was restricted, you could climb to the top and, on a clear day, see the top of the grand pyramid at the nearby ruin site of Ek Balam. The Temple of Kukulkan is a masterpiece of architecture and astronomy.

The four faces of the temple have stairways with 91 steps each, which makes 364 steps total. Combined with a base platform on top of the pyramid that unites all four stairways, it comes to 365, the exact number of days in a solar year. The number of sections on each side of the temple is also symbolical: 9 steps of the pyramid are divided in half by a stairway, which equals a number of months (18) in Mayan calendar. Moreover, 52 stone reliefs on each face of the sanctuary represent one calendar cycle consisting of 52 years. There is also a small temple with four entrances for sacrificial rituals on top of the pyramid.

Apart from the Temple of Kukulkan, Chichen Itza preserved seven “stadiums” for ball games, the Group of Thousand Columns forming a giant rectangular, the Sacred Cenote (also known as the Sacred Well), and many other interesting structures. The ancient city is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In 2007 it was also named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Our photo panoramas will help you get acquainted with this miracle. The Maya built majestic stone cities centred around pyramid-temples like Kukulkan, where people would go to worship their gods and participate in ceremonies timed to their highly sophisticated calendar.

It was probably at these gatherings that Maya priests or other leaders may have clapped their hands to invoke the quetzal’s call. When a clapping noise rings out, the temple’s high and narrow limestone steps act as separate sound scatterers, bouncing back a chirp-like tone that declines in frequency. In other words, reflections from the treads of the staircase are responsible for the echo being altered. The reason that a chirp like a bird is produced is that of geometry. The time between later reflections is longer than early reflections causing the frequency of the echo to rapidly drop by about an octave.

A small pyramid structure was discovered inside the temple of Kukulkan in the legendary city of Chichen Itza

The discovery was made by US and Mexican archaeologists working in the temple complex using the electrical resistivity tomography method. This is a third such structure discovered within the Kukulkan temple as the presence of a second pyramid within the main structure was confirmed by archaeologists back in 1940. Geoffrey Braswell, a professor of anthropology at the University of California at San Diego, pointed out that while the archaeologists may have indeed found a new structure, the pyramid in question may, in fact, be the one that was already found by researchers in 1940s.


Kukulcan - History

Group Membership: The Ahau

Affiliations: El Tigre (former ally/pawn)

Enemies: X-Men (Angel, Beast, Cyclops, Iceman)

Known Relatives: None

Aliases: Feathered Serpent, Gucumatz, the Plumed Serpent

Base of Operations: Unrevealed

First Appearance: (BTS) Namora#1 (August, 1948)
(seen see comments) X-Men I#25 (October 1966)

Powers/Abilities:
Kukulcan possesses the conventional powers of the Mayan Gods. He has superhuman strength (Class 50 perhaps) and endurance plus mystical abilities enabling him to fly and command ambient elemental energies, such as having control over the air and wind. He can also teleport under certain conditions.
Using certain mystic totems, he has attained additional powers. Using the Sacred Pendant of Kukulcan, he has possessed people and transformed them into a form similar to his own. Using the Solar Stone with the Feathered Serpent idol, he could control the wills of those of Mayan descent and restructure matter at will.

History: (myth) - Kukulcan was one of the Mayan gods of Ancient Mexico until around 800 AD when the Aztec Empire first began to grow in importance and began assimilating all the smaller races of the Yucatan.

(Namora#1 - BTS) - Kukulcan was worshipped by the tribesmen of the Apaco, but they were tricked by the American Jim Derry into obeying a phony statue of Kukulcan given voice by Derry's men so that he could steal their treasures. Namora revealed the trick to the Apaco.

(X-Men I#25, 26-BTS) - Treasure hunter el Tigre found and located the two halves of the Sacred Pendant of Kukulcan (one in the Pyramid of Kukulcan in the Central American jungle, the other at the City Museum in New York). When he joined the two halves together, el Tigre was possessed by and transformed into a reincarnation of Kukulcan.
Despite the efforts of the X-Men, Kukulcan returned to San Rico, where he activated the Solar Stone (a large gem set in the Feathered Serpent idol), which increased his powers. He then set about restoring the Mayan pyramids to their former glory and and placing all those of Mayan descent under his control. The X-Men traveled to San Rico and again confronted him. In the course of the battle, Kukulcan inadvertently knocked the Feathered Serpent idol into a large chasm, causing his powers and essence to fade, leaving only el Tigre.

COMMENTS: Created by Roy Thomas, Werner Roth, Dick Ayers.

In addition, in Conan of the Isles, Metemhoc, a native of Antilla (settled by some of the survivors of ancient Atlantis), referred to Conan by the name, Kukulcan, as a form of praise.

I also vaguely remember some adventure with Doc Savage and the "Feathered Serpent." I'm not sure whether these should be considered in-continuity, even though Doc Savage has crossed over with the MU at a few points.
The Doc Savage story involving the Feathered Serpent occurred in the early issues, in an adaptation of the novel "The Man of Bronze". In the original novel, the real Quetzacoatl was not involved. it was just a criminal posing as his son (using advanced science) to mislead the superstitious. The Son of the Feathered Serpent was actually Don Rubio Gorro, your garden variety corrupt Latin America government figure
--Per Degaton.

Profile by William Uchtman and Snood. Separated from Quetzalcoatl by Markus Raymond..

CLARIFICATIONS: If you want to get really technical, although Kukulcan possesses, transforms, and controls el Tigre in X-Men I#25, 26 Kukulcan himself is actually physically behind the scenes. The transformed version of El Tigre is not the physical form of the god Kukulcan, but I think this gets down to splitting hairs.

Kukulcan should not be confused with:

Appearances:
Namora I#1 (August, 1948) - Bill Everett (writer/artist), Stan Lee (editor)
X-Men I#25-26 (October-November, 1966) - Roy Thomas (writer), Werner Roth (pencils), Dick Ayers (inks), Stan Lee (editor)


Kukulcan - History

El Castillo—in Spanish, “the castle”—looms at the center of Chichén Itzá, a 79-foot pyramid of stone. Also known as the Pyramid of Kukulkán, the structure embodies Mayan myth along with natural astronomical cycles.

The phenomenon that El Castillo is famous for occurs twice each year, at the spring and fall equinoxes. (In fact, the effect is viewable for a week before and after each equinox.) As the equinox sun sets, a play of light and shadow creates the appearance of a snake that gradually undulates down the stairway of the pyramid. This diamond-backed snake is composed of seven or so triangular shadows, cast by the stepped terraces of the pyramid. The sinking sun seems to give life to the sinuous shadows, which make a decidedly snaky pattern on their way down the stairs.

Thousands of people gather to see this phenomenon, which may have been viewed by the ancient Maya as the manifestation of the god Kukulkán, the feathered serpent. But was the effect intentional, or merely a happy accident?

It isn’t possible to read the minds of the Maya who built the structure in roughly AD 1000, but various signs suggest the effect was deliberately created. The most obvious of those signs are the large snake-head sculptures carved into the base of the stairway. As the shadow moves down the stairway, the body of the snake ultimately unites with one of these enormous heads.

Other features of El Castillo suggest astronomical understanding and intent on the part of the Mayan builders. The structure as a whole seems to be aligned with an important astronomical axis: The west plane of the pyramid faces the zenith passage sunset. Meanwhile, each of the four (exceedingly steep) stairways that climb the pyramid has 91 steps, with a final step at the top making a total of 365, the number of days in a solar year. Ninety-one is also the number of days that separate each of the four phases of the annual solar cycle: winter solstice, spring equinox, summer solstice, and fall equinox.

Using the patterns of light and shadow appearing on El Castillo throughout the year, the Maya could easily have tracked the seasons and marked these four annual solar events—the two solstices and two equinoxes. And so it seems the ancient Maya may have used this structure as, among other things, a calendar to signal appropriate times to plant, harvest, and perform ceremonies.


References

Aldana Gerardo. (2003) K’uk’ulkan at Mayapán: Venus and postclassic Maya statecraft. Journal for the History of Astronomy 34(114): 33–51

Barrera Vázquez, Alfredo and Silvia Rendón, trans. 2005. El libro de los Libros de Chilam Balam. Mexico, Fondo de Cultura Económica.

Codex Bodley. c. 1500. Bodleian Library, University of Oxford, Codex Bodley 2858. http://www.famsi.org/spanish/research/pohl/jpcodices/bodley/index.html

De Landa, Diego. 1986. Relación de las Cosas de Yucatán. Mexico, Ed. Porrúa

Declercq Nico F., Joris Degrieck, Briers R., Leroy O. (2004) A theoretical study of special acoustic effects caused by the staircase of the El Castillo pyramid at the Maya ruins of Chichen-Itza in Mexico, in:. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 116(6): 3328–3335

Desmond, Lawrence G. and William A. Sauck. 1996. Entering the Maya underworld: A ground penetrating radar survey at Chichen Itza, Yucatan, Mexico. Pp. 23-30 in Innovation et Technologie au Service de Patrimoine de l’Humanite, Actes du colloque organise par Admitech en collaboration avec l’Unesco, Paris, June 24, 1996.

García-Salgado, Tomás. 2004. Instrumentos para la Geometría Perspectiva (Instruments for Perspective Geometry). Mexico, FA, UNAM, pp. 40-41.

Klokočník Jaroslav, Jan Kostelecký, František Vítek. (2007) Pyramids and Ceremonial Centers in Mesoamerica: Were They Oriented Using a Magnetic Compass?. Prague, Studies in Geophysics and Geodesy 51: 515–533

Stephens, John L. 2000. Incidents of Travel in Yucatan. Mexico, Ed. San Fernando.

Tedlock, Dennis, trans. 1996. Popol Vuh: The Mayan Book of the Dawn of Life. New York, Touchstone.


In the state of Veracruz, El Tajin is one of the most important sites from the so-called epiclassic (or late classic) period, dating from around 900 C.E. The city’s residents were avid ballplayers—more than 60 ball courts have been excavated here. You’ll also see one of Mexico’s most unusual buildings, the Pyramid of the Niches. The relatively short pyramid, 59 feet high, consists of six platforms, each lined with carved niches that were most likely used to track the days of the year.

How to Get There: El Tajin is pretty remote, but if your travels take you to Veracruz, it’s a four-hour drive to the site.


Chichen Itza El Castillo

Chichen Itza El Castillo, known as “The Castle” or “The Pyramid of Kukulcán” the monumental structure dominates the Northern Platform. Dedicated to the serpent God Kukulcán it is also known by its Toltec name the “Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl”.

Kukulcán is a feathered serpent deity closely related to the Aztec God Quetzalcoatl. The God Kukulcán was both a war serpent and a vision serpent and is closely associated with noble figures. In Chichén Itza, he presides over sacrifices.

The Kukulcán cult was centered in Chichén Itza in the Classic Period (200 CE–1000CE) and was adopted by other cultures and linguistic groups as far away as the highlands of Guatemala. This adoption of a common God facilitated trade and comm

unication between cultures and social backgrounds.

El Castillo is a Mesoamerican stepped Pyramid approximately 30 meters (98 feet) high the base is 55.3 meters (181 feet) square. It was built by the Mayans from the 9th to 12th century AD. There is archeological evidence that this pyramid was built atop at least on other. In the 1930’s scientists discovered another temple containing a Chac Mool and a Jaguar throne. The jaguar is painted red and has inlaid jade spots.

Known as “The Castle” or “The Pyramid of Kukulcán” the monumental structure dominates the Northern Platform. Dedicated to the serpent God

El Castillo is a magnificent tribute to the mathematical and astronomical skills of the Maya. The accuracy of the celestial measurements combined with their rich religious beliefs to produce this outstanding temple full of intrigue, mystery and sheer wonder.

Each side of the four sides of the pyramid has 91 stairs or a total of 364. The common platform at the top makes the grand total of 365 stairs – the number of days in a year. The Pyramid is layered like a cake with nine tiers. The staircase divides the tiers creating 18 tiers per side. The Mayan calendar had 18 months (winals) to form a Mayan year (tun).

There are 52 rectangular panels on each side of the pyramid. This corresponds to convergence year of the Mayan’s solar calendar and their ritual calendar which happens once every 52 years. Some archeologists believe that the Mayans built or rebuilt monuments every 52 years.

The Northern face of the pyramid face the platform of Venus and the Sacred Cenote. This staircase has huge serpents’ heads representing the God Kukulcán. Every year thousands of visitors gather at Chichén Itza in the late afternoon during the spring and fall equinox (March 21 and September 21) to witness the illusion of the snake slithering down the pyramid. The illusion is created by the low sun casting a shadow over the northern Balustrade and the illumination of the serpent’s head at the bottom at the base of the temple.


El Castillo is a magnificent tribute to the mathematical and astronomical skills of the Maya. The accuracy of the celestial measurements combined with their rich religious beliefs to produce this outstanding temple full of intrigue, mystery and sheer wonder.

The Government body that manages antiquities National Institute of Anthropology and History

(INAH) has gradually been closing off the monuments in Chichén Itza and unfortunately since 2006 the El Castillo can no longer be climbed and access to the throne room and temple on the top is restricted.


Equinox at Chichen Itza

The name equinox means "equal night" in Latin but what really an equinox is?

Northern Hemisphere moving into autumn and the South emerging from winter into spring. The celestial event that marks this transition is called an "equinox," and it happens twice every year around March 21 and Sept. 21

You can attend this extraordinary phenomenon in one of the most famous Mayan Ruins named by UNESCO a World Heritage Site and a Wonder of the World, &ldquoChichen Itza&rdquo.

At Chichen Itza, during the spring and fall equinoxes &mdash this pyramid dedicated to Kukulcán (or Quetzalcoatl) serves as a visual symbol of the day and night. On every equinox, the sun of the late afternoon creates the illusion of a snake creeping slowly down the northern staircase. Symbolically, the feathered serpent joins the heavens, earth and the underworld, day and night.

Thousands of people travel from around the world and gather to Chichen Itza each year, to admire this astronomical spectacle. The whole day has a carnival type atmosphere, rock bands competing with traditional music and folk dance troupes, and groups of New Agers in robes come to see the equinox. Visitors usually wear white clothes in order to get rid of &ldquobad vibes&rdquo and attract positive energy from the new sun.

5 Things you didn't know about the phenomenon Chichen Itza equinox

1. People tend to believe when Kukulcan returns to Earth, it is to provide blessing for a full harvest and good health to his worshipers.

2. An illusion of light and shadow creates seven triangles on the side of the staircase, than it connects the top platform with the giant stone head of the feathered serpent at the bottom.

3. This phenomenon stayed entirely around forty-five minutes before slowing descending the pyramid and disappearing along with the crowd that gathered to see it.

4. The pyramid was built as a representation of the Mayan Calendar

5. You can visit Chichen Itzá to admire the recreated phenomenon nightly (artificially) during the Chichen Itzá Light and Sounds Show all year.

We invite you to visit our Chichen Itza Tours Comparison Chart to help you to decide the best option for your visit


Mayan Snake god Kukulcan

In the ancient world there are many mysteries, but none as perplexing as those found in the Mayan culture.

From their beginnings to their mysterious disappearance the Mayan's have baffled us all. One fact that has stumped many is actually one of the figures that is found throughout Mayan religion, the Serpent God, Kukulcan.

Kukulcan is one of the three gods that was thought to have created the Earth. He is a serpent in his natural form and was responsible for teaching the Mayan's about such things as how to run a civilization, agriculture, and medicine.

After a brief period of being on Earth Kukulcan returned to the ocean telling the Mayans that he would return at some later date.

Mayans perceived European settlers as the second coming of their god Kukulcan and this was eventually lead to the trust between the two cultures, and the eventual defeat of the Mayans culture.

  • Why would the Mayans think that European settlers were gods?
  • Did they look anything like what the Mayans perceived as Kukulcan?

Kukulcan had a human form as well as his feathered serpent form. Kukulcan would transform into a man standing about 6 feet tall with long white hair, but most interestingly he was a male Caucasian man with white skin!

We find writing from the Mayans and sculptures of what is thought to be Kukulcan and they depict a very European looking figure, totally different from how the Mayan's looked.

Mayan's were dark skinned Latin looking people. They were normally not very tall and had brown eyes. Kukulcan in his human form was a complete contrast, having white or silver hair, white skin, blue eyes, and he was tall.

Scientist and scholars alike have all wondered,

  • Why this could have been the case?
  • Why would a civilization have a divine figure, a god that looked nothing like themselves?
  • Why would he look like people found in Western civilization?

One theory actually involves the lost city of Atlantis!

Some would think that once Atlantis as described by Plato sank into the ocean some of its citizens would have survived. One man, Kukulcan, could have made his way into Mesoamerica and taught the Mayan's the secrets of his lost city.

This fits the profile of what Kukulcan would have been like, coming from the sea, looking like a European, and teachings of government, medicine, and agriculture, all fit into the idea that Kukulcan could have been from the ancient Atlantis. Also when he left, this mystery man could have traveled across Mexico and found those form the Aztec civilization.

Aztecs worshiped a similar god, Quetzalcoatl, who also matches the description of Kukulcan.

Quetzalcoatl taught many of the same things as Kukulcan and once Spanish conquistadors began to arrive in Mesoamerica they were also accepted as gods by the Aztecs.

This would lead some to believe that both Quetzalcoatl, and Kukulcan were indeed the same deity, or man as it may be the case.

Both the Mayan and Aztec civilizations remain mostly undiscovered and many mysteries surround both, but still the legend of Kukulcan and his many temples and statues astound and baffle scientist, and will for centuries to come.


Kukulcan - History

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    Kukulkan is the name of a feathered serpent god of the Maya civilization. The Temple (or Pyramid) of Kukulcan is the main structure of Chichén Itzá archaeological site. It was built to be a physical representation of the Mayan Calendar, which predicted that the world would end in 2012.

    Chichen Itza is classified as one of the “New Seven Wonders of the World” and in 1988 it was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was one of the great Mesoamerican cities in history and today is one of the most popular tourist sites in Mexico.

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Kukulcán-Pyramide,

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Kukulcán-Pyramide

    Chichén Itzá ist eine der bedeutendsten Ruinenstätten auf der mexikanischen Halbinsel Yucatán. Sie liegt etwa 120 Kilometer östlich von Mérida im Bundesstaat Yucatán. Ihre Ruinen stammen aus der späten Maya-Zeit. Mit einer Fläche von 1547 Hektar ist Chichén Itzá einer der ausgedehntesten Fundorte in Yucatán. Das Zentrum wird von zahlreichen monumentalen Repräsentationsbauten mit religiös-politischem Hintergrund eingenommen, aus denen eine große, weitestgehend erhaltene Stufenpyramide herausragt. Im direkten Umkreis befinden sich Ruinen von Häusern der Oberschicht.

    Chichen Itza] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

    Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Kukulcán-Pyramide

    Chichén Itzá ist eine der bedeutendsten Ruinenstätten auf der mexikanischen Halbinsel Yucatán. Sie liegt etwa 120 Kilometer östlich von Mérida im Bundesstaat Yucatán. Ihre Ruinen stammen aus der späten Maya-Zeit. Mit einer Fläche von 1547 Hektar ist Chichén Itzá einer der ausgedehntesten Fundorte in Yucatán. Das Zentrum wird von zahlreichen monumentalen Repräsentationsbauten mit religiös-politischem Hintergrund eingenommen, aus denen eine große, weitestgehend erhaltene Stufenpyramide herausragt. Im direkten Umkreis befinden sich Ruinen von Häusern der Oberschicht.

    Chichen Itza] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

    Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Ballspielplatz

    Chichén Itzá ist eine der bedeutendsten Ruinenstätten auf der mexikanischen Halbinsel Yucatán. Sie liegt etwa 120 Kilometer östlich von Mérida im Bundesstaat Yucatán. Ihre Ruinen stammen aus der späten Maya-Zeit. Mit einer Fläche von 1547 Hektar ist Chichén Itzá einer der ausgedehntesten Fundorte in Yucatán. Das Zentrum wird von zahlreichen monumentalen Repräsentationsbauten mit religiös-politischem Hintergrund eingenommen, aus denen eine große, weitestgehend erhaltene Stufenpyramide herausragt. Im direkten Umkreis befinden sich Ruinen von Häusern der Oberschicht.

    Chichen Itza] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

    Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Kukulcán-Pyramide

    Chichén Itzá ist eine der bedeutendsten Ruinenstätten auf der mexikanischen Halbinsel Yucatán. Sie liegt etwa 120 Kilometer östlich von Mérida im Bundesstaat Yucatán. Ihre Ruinen stammen aus der späten Maya-Zeit. Mit einer Fläche von 1547 Hektar ist Chichén Itzá einer der ausgedehntesten Fundorte in Yucatán. Das Zentrum wird von zahlreichen monumentalen Repräsentationsbauten mit religiös-politischem Hintergrund eingenommen, aus denen eine große, weitestgehend erhaltene Stufenpyramide herausragt. Im direkten Umkreis befinden sich Ruinen von Häusern der Oberschicht.

    Chichen Itza] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

    Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá , Ballspielplatz.

    Der „Große Ballspielplatz“ von Chichén Itzá war (allein schon wegen seiner Ausmaße und der Höhe des Zielringes) kaum wirklich für das Ballspiel nutzbar, sondern eher für zeremonielle Zwecke bestimmt und diente wahrscheinlich der Darstellung politischer und vermutlich auch religiöser Macht.

    Ziel des Spiels in seiner Version aus dem späten Klassikum und dem Postklassikum war, den Ball durch einen der beiden an den Reflexwänden angebrachten Ringe zu schießen. Da die Öffnungen nicht viel größer als der Ball waren, dürfte dies nur sehr selten gelungen sein. Bei dem „Großen Ballspielplatz“ von Chichén Itzá kam als weitere Erschwernis die Höhe hinzu, in der die Ringe angebracht waren.

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Ballspielplatz

    Chichén Itzá ist eine der bedeutendsten Ruinenstätten auf der mexikanischen Halbinsel Yucatán. Sie liegt etwa 120 Kilometer östlich von Mérida im Bundesstaat Yucatán. Ihre Ruinen stammen aus der späten Maya-Zeit. Mit einer Fläche von 1547 Hektar ist Chichén Itzá einer der ausgedehntesten Fundorte in Yucatán. Das Zentrum wird von zahlreichen monumentalen Repräsentationsbauten mit religiös-politischem Hintergrund eingenommen, aus denen eine große, weitestgehend erhaltene Stufenpyramide herausragt. Im direkten Umkreis befinden sich Ruinen von Häusern der Oberschicht.

    Chichen Itza] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

    Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.

    Temple of Kukulcán (El Castillo)

    Zona Arqueológica de Chichén Itzá Yucatán, México.

    During our visit, Chichen Itza site was invaded by crowds of tourists, and also plenty merchants on the alleys. Fortunately, as we were leaving at the site's closing, there was almost nobody left.

    So i could take a quiet shot of the stunning pyramid of Kukulkan.

    This pyramid (also called El Castillo) is not the largest in Mexico: it is about 30m high (99 ft), compared to the 65m (216 ft) Pyramid of the Sun in Tehotihuacan.

    But it is certainly one of the most beautiful and best preserved in the country. It dates from the 12th century.

    Kukulcan was the Feathered Serpent God among the Toltecs, he was the God of resurrection and reincarnation.

    Lors de notre visite, le site de Chichen Itza était envahi par des foules de touristes, et aussi par plein de marchands sur les allées. Heureusement, à la fermeture du site, alors que nous repartions, il n'y avait presque plus personne.

    Ca m'a permis un cliché tranquile de la pyramide extraordinaire de Kukulkàn.

    Cette pyramide (également appelée El Castillo) , n'est pas la plus grande du Mexique : elle fait environ 30m de haut , à comparer aux 65 m de la pyramide du Soleil à Tehotihuacan.

    Mais c'est certainement une plus belles et des mieux conservées du pays. Elle date du 12ème siècle.

    Kukulcán était le dieu Serpent à Plumes chez les Toltèques, il était le Dieu de la résurection et de la réincarnation.

    Chichén Itzá - Yucatán - Mexique / Mexico

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Kukulcán-Pyramide,

    Chichén Itzá ist eine der bedeutendsten Ruinenstätten auf der mexikanischen Halbinsel Yucatán. Sie liegt etwa 120 Kilometer östlich von Mérida im Bundesstaat Yucatán. Ihre Ruinen stammen aus der späten Maya-Zeit. Mit einer Fläche von 1547 Hektar ist Chichén Itzá einer der ausgedehntesten Fundorte in Yucatán. Das Zentrum wird von zahlreichen monumentalen Repräsentationsbauten mit religiös-politischem Hintergrund eingenommen, aus denen eine große, weitestgehend erhaltene Stufenpyramide herausragt. Im direkten Umkreis befinden sich Ruinen von Häusern der Oberschicht.

    Chichen Itza] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

    Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.

    The Maya Mayapan site is not as famous as Uxmal or Chichen Itza, but it is also interesting to visit.

    Founded in 1050, Mayapan was the Mayan political capital of the Yucatan Peninsula from the late 1220s until the 1440s.

    The pyramid of Mayapan is known as "El Castillo". It measures 15 meters high (around 50 feet) and is dedicated to the god Kukulcan.

    Le site Maya de Mayapan n'est pas aussi connu qu'Uxmal ou Chichen Itza, mais il est intéressant aussi à visiter.

    Fondée dès 1050, Mayapan fut la capitale politique des Mayas dans la péninsule du Yucatan de la fin des années 1220 jusque dans les années 1440.

    La pyramide de Mayapan est connue sous le nom de « El Castillo". Elle mesure 15 mètres de haut et est dediée au dieu Kukulcan.

    Mayapan - Yucatàn - Mexique / Mexico

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Kukulcán-Pyramide

    Chichén Itzá ist eine der bedeutendsten Ruinenstätten auf der mexikanischen Halbinsel Yucatán. Sie liegt etwa 120 Kilometer östlich von Mérida im Bundesstaat Yucatán. Ihre Ruinen stammen aus der späten Maya-Zeit. Mit einer Fläche von 1547 Hektar ist Chichén Itzá einer der ausgedehntesten Fundorte in Yucatán. Das Zentrum wird von zahlreichen monumentalen Repräsentationsbauten mit religiös-politischem Hintergrund eingenommen, aus denen eine große, weitestgehend erhaltene Stufenpyramide herausragt. Im direkten Umkreis befinden sich Ruinen von Häusern der Oberschicht.

    Chichen Itza] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

    Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.

    Chichén Itzá ist eine der bedeutendsten Ruinenstätten auf der mexikanischen Halbinsel Yucatán. Sie liegt etwa 120 Kilometer östlich von Mérida im Bundesstaat Yucatán. Ihre Ruinen stammen aus der späten Maya-Zeit. Mit einer Fläche von 1547 Hektar ist Chichén Itzá einer der ausgedehntesten Fundorte in Yucatán. Das Zentrum wird von zahlreichen monumentalen Repräsentationsbauten mit religiös-politischem Hintergrund eingenommen, aus denen eine große, weitestgehend erhaltene Stufenpyramide herausragt. Im direkten Umkreis befinden sich Ruinen von Häusern der Oberschicht.

    Chichen Itza] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

    Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá , Ballspielplatz

    Der „Große Ballspielplatz“ von Chichén Itzá war (allein schon wegen seiner Ausmaße und der Höhe des Zielringes) kaum wirklich für das Ballspiel nutzbar, sondern eher für zeremonielle Zwecke bestimmt und diente wahrscheinlich der Darstellung politischer und vermutlich auch religiöser Macht.

    Ziel des Spiels in seiner Version aus dem späten Klassikum und dem Postklassikum war, den Ball durch einen der beiden an den Reflexwänden angebrachten Ringe zu schießen. Da die Öffnungen nicht viel größer als der Ball waren, dürfte dies nur sehr selten gelungen sein. Bei dem „Großen Ballspielplatz“ von Chichén Itzá kam als weitere Erschwernis die Höhe hinzu, in der die Ringe angebracht waren.

    Chichén Itzá ist eine der bedeutendsten Ruinenstätten auf der mexikanischen Halbinsel Yucatán. Sie liegt etwa 120 Kilometer östlich von Mérida im Bundesstaat Yucatán. Ihre Ruinen stammen aus der späten Maya-Zeit. Mit einer Fläche von 1547 Hektar ist Chichén Itzá einer der ausgedehntesten Fundorte in Yucatán. Das Zentrum wird von zahlreichen monumentalen Repräsentationsbauten mit religiös-politischem Hintergrund eingenommen, aus denen eine große, weitestgehend erhaltene Stufenpyramide herausragt. Im direkten Umkreis befinden sich Ruinen von Häusern der Oberschicht.

    Chichen Itza] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

    Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá , Ballspielplatz

    Der „Große Ballspielplatz“ von Chichén Itzá war (allein schon wegen seiner Ausmaße und der Höhe des Zielringes) kaum wirklich für das Ballspiel nutzbar, sondern eher für zeremonielle Zwecke bestimmt und diente wahrscheinlich der Darstellung politischer und vermutlich auch religiöser Macht.

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Kukulcán-Pyramide

    Chichén Itzá ist eine der bedeutendsten Ruinenstätten auf der mexikanischen Halbinsel Yucatán. Sie liegt etwa 120 Kilometer östlich von Mérida im Bundesstaat Yucatán. Ihre Ruinen stammen aus der späten Maya-Zeit. Mit einer Fläche von 1547 Hektar ist Chichén Itzá einer der ausgedehntesten Fundorte in Yucatán. Das Zentrum wird von zahlreichen monumentalen Repräsentationsbauten mit religiös-politischem Hintergrund eingenommen, aus denen eine große, weitestgehend erhaltene Stufenpyramide herausragt. Im direkten Umkreis befinden sich Ruinen von Häusern der Oberschicht.

    Chichen Itza] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

    Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Kukulcán-Pyramide

    Chichén Itzá ist eine der bedeutendsten Ruinenstätten auf der mexikanischen Halbinsel Yucatán. Sie liegt etwa 120 Kilometer östlich von Mérida im Bundesstaat Yucatán. Ihre Ruinen stammen aus der späten Maya-Zeit. Mit einer Fläche von 1547 Hektar ist Chichén Itzá einer der ausgedehntesten Fundorte in Yucatán. Das Zentrum wird von zahlreichen monumentalen Repräsentationsbauten mit religiös-politischem Hintergrund eingenommen, aus denen eine große, weitestgehend erhaltene Stufenpyramide herausragt. Im direkten Umkreis befinden sich Ruinen von Häusern der Oberschicht.

    Chichen Itza] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

    Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.

    This is the end, beautiful friend

    This is the end, my only friend, the end

    Of our elaborate plans, the end

    Of everything that stands, the end

    No safety or surprise, the end

    I'll never look into your eyes, again.

    (Jim Morrison, The Doors, 1967)

    And the intro from "Apocalypse Now":

    I constructed this backdrop at Lara's SIM after first derendering the lighthouse that was nearby. Fairly obviously the figure on the right is the Statue of Liberty but behind me is a virtual rendition of the Pyramid of Kukulcan at Chich'en Itza in Mexico. And then there are sparks - but I will let you, dear reader, ponder on their significance.

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Kukulcán-Pyramide

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Kukulcán-Pyramide,

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Kukulcán-Pyramide

    Chichén Itzá ist eine der bedeutendsten Ruinenstätten auf der mexikanischen Halbinsel Yucatán. Sie liegt etwa 120 Kilometer östlich von Mérida im Bundesstaat Yucatán. Ihre Ruinen stammen aus der späten Maya-Zeit. Mit einer Fläche von 1547 Hektar ist Chichén Itzá einer der ausgedehntesten Fundorte in Yucatán. Das Zentrum wird von zahlreichen monumentalen Repräsentationsbauten mit religiös-politischem Hintergrund eingenommen, aus denen eine große, weitestgehend erhaltene Stufenpyramide herausragt. Im direkten Umkreis befinden sich Ruinen von Häusern der Oberschicht.

    Chichen Itza] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

    Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.

    Chichén Itzá ist eine der bedeutendsten Ruinenstätten auf der mexikanischen Halbinsel Yucatán. Sie liegt etwa 120 Kilometer östlich von Mérida im Bundesstaat Yucatán. Ihre Ruinen stammen aus der späten Maya-Zeit. Mit einer Fläche von 1547 Hektar ist Chichén Itzá einer der ausgedehntesten Fundorte in Yucatán. Das Zentrum wird von zahlreichen monumentalen Repräsentationsbauten mit religiös-politischem Hintergrund eingenommen, aus denen eine große, weitestgehend erhaltene Stufenpyramide herausragt. Im direkten Umkreis befinden sich Ruinen von Häusern der Oberschicht.

    Chichen Itza] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

    Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Kukulcán-Pyramide

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Kukulcán-Pyramide,

    MEXICO, Yucatán, Chichén Itzá, Kukulcán-Pyramide

    Chichén Itzá ist eine der bedeutendsten Ruinenstätten auf der mexikanischen Halbinsel Yucatán. Sie liegt etwa 120 Kilometer östlich von Mérida im Bundesstaat Yucatán. Ihre Ruinen stammen aus der späten Maya-Zeit. Mit einer Fläche von 1547 Hektar ist Chichén Itzá einer der ausgedehntesten Fundorte in Yucatán. Das Zentrum wird von zahlreichen monumentalen Repräsentationsbauten mit religiös-politischem Hintergrund eingenommen, aus denen eine große, weitestgehend erhaltene Stufenpyramide herausragt. Im direkten Umkreis befinden sich Ruinen von Häusern der Oberschicht.

    Chichen Itza] was a large pre-Columbian city built by the Maya people of the Terminal Classic period. The archaeological site is located in Tinúm Municipality, Yucatán State, Mexico.

    Chichen Itza was a major focal point in the Northern Maya Lowlands from the Late Classic (c. AD 600–900) through the Terminal Classic (c. AD 800–900) and into the early portion of the Postclassic period (c. AD 900–1200). The site exhibits a multitude of architectural styles, reminiscent of styles seen in central Mexico and of the Puuc and Chenes styles of the Northern Maya lowlands. The presence of central Mexican styles was once thought to have been representative of direct migration or even conquest from central Mexico, but most contemporary interpretations view the presence of these non-Maya styles more as the result of cultural diffusion.


    Watch the video: Kukulcan - Señor de la guerra Huitzilopochtli (July 2022).


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