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Karl Stauffer-Bern : Biography

Karl Stauffer-Bern : Biography


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Karl Stauffer-Bern was born in Trubschachen, Switzerland, on 2nd September, 1857. He studied at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts, where he came under the influence of the French artist, Gustave Courbet, who was the leader of the realist movement. Influenced by this attempt to capture the reality of everyday life, he returned to Bern but discovered that his kind of painting was "too realistic."

In 1880, he moved to Berlin, where he began to build a reputation as a portrait painter. He also found work as a teacher at Berlin School for Women Artists. One of his students was Käthe Kollwitz.

The author of Käthe Kollwitz (1976) has argued: "Karl Stauffer-Bern, was a jack-of-all-arts; at twenty-seven, he had already displayed talents as a poet, painter, sculptor, and etcher, and was a perceptive teacher as well. Stauffer-Bern had little respect for the sort of work favoured by the Academy in 1885 - enormous, academic canvases of battlefields."

Stauffer-Bern introduced Kollwitz to the work of Max Klinger. The art critic, Martha Kearns, has pointed out: "She (Käthe) had never heard of Max Klinger, Prussia's most skilled artist of the then-popular naturalism, a school of thought which deemed people to be predetermined victims in a bitter struggle for survival. As an art form, naturalism emphasized photolike images of actual persons, scenes, and conditions, often in the most minute, even microscopic detail. Unlike artists working in other styles, naturalist artists featured women as subjects as frequently as men."

During this time he wrote to a friend that "among Berlin's one-and-a-half-million inhabitants, there isn't anyone of my own age who I feel is a kindred spirit in the world of art, so here I am, with no one to turn to for companionship, its the very devil." He had little respect for people who liked his work and called his admirers "blind".

In 1884 the German etcher, Peter Halm introduced Stauffer-Bern to the technique of engraving. His biographer has argued: "Stauffer-Bern continued his study of engraving on his own, and quickly became one of the most talented print-makers of his time, creating an outstanding series of portraits of his family, his friends, and of leading Swiss and German personalities."

His biographer, Matthias Frehner, has pointed out: "As a painter, engraver and graphic artist, he created powerful and striking character analyses.... The man from Bern was a manic creator who was not satisfied with merely painting. Self-taught, he created etchings of subtle quality. Stauffer-Bern switched between one activity and another with boundless enthusiasm and in the process accomplished great artistic achievements. In Berlin during the Wilhelminian period, his insistent naturalism corresponded to the taste of a wealthy stratum of society who enjoyed having him paint their portraits."

Stauffer-Bern returned to Switzerland where Friedrich Welti and his wife Lydia Welti-Escher became his most important patrons. Welti's father Emil Welti was an important figure in the government, and Lydia's father Alfred Escher, was the wealthy Gotthard railway magnate and co-founder of Credit Suisse.

In 1888, the Welti-Eschers agreed to finance a stay in Rome for Stauffer-Bern. The following year the Welti-Eschers moved to Florence. However, Friedrich Welti had to spend a lot of time on business in Switzerland. While he was away Stauffer-Bern and Lydia began a sexual relationship. When news of the relationship reached Welti, he used his government contacts to have Lydia committed to an asylum, and Stauffer-Bern was briefly sent to prison under trumped-up charges.

Stauffer-Bern was released from prison after several months, but soon afterwards he suffered a nervous breakdown and was committed to San Bonifazio clinic in Florence, one of the first hospitals for the mentally ill.

On his release he returned to Switzerland. Prevented from resuming his relationship with Lydia Welti-Escher, he attempted to shoot himself in the botanical gardens of Berne. The bullet closely missed his heart, and he survived. Stauffer-Bern now moved back to Florence where he attempted to revive his career as an artist.

Karl Stauffer-Bern died after taking an overdose of the sleeping drug chloral hydrate on 23rd January, 1891. He was buried in the Agli Allori Cemetery.

Lydia Welti-Escher, who had left her husband, committed suicide in December 1891, in Champel, Geneva.

Karl Stauffer-Bern, was a jack-of-all-arts; at twenty-seven, he had already displayed talents as a poet, painter, sculptor, and etcher, and was a perceptive teacher as well. Stauffer-Bern had little respect for the sort of work favoured by the Academy in 1885 - enormous, academic canvases of battlefields.


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Karl Stauffer-Bern – Fifth Self-Portrait

Like many of Karl Stauffer-Bern’s engraved portraits, this study of his own face is drawn life size, a feature which gives it an extraordinary presence.

Heliogravüre von O. Felsing.
Lehr catalogue #7.

The print was made by Otto Felsing one of Germany’s the master printers of the late 19th century who collaborated with major artists including Kathe Kollewitz and Emil Nolde to produce etchings.

Text written in the plate: Stauffer-Bern ad Natur / 20/6. 85. Berlin

Annotations at the bottom of the print:

Kupferaetzung und Druck von O. Felsing, Berlin – Kupferaetzung nach ein Original Radierung von Karl Stauffer-Bern.

Dimensions of sheet: 45 X 63 cm

Karl Stauffer-Bern was one of the greatest Swiss portraitists of the 19th Century. It is difficult to name another engraver who could equal his subtlety and mastery in depicting the human face. The beauty of the body of work Stauffer-Bern created during his short life combine with the tragedy of his personal destiny to make him one of the most fascinating Swiss artists.

Stauffer-Bern studied at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts, but upon returning to Bern discovered that the public there found his work "too realistic." In 1880, he took up a friend's invitation, and traveled to Berlin, where he began to build a reputation as a portrait painter and teacher. His students during his years in Berlin included the famous German artist Käthe Kollwitz, who took his class on portraiture, and on whom he had a profound influence. In 1884, the famous German etcher Peter Halm introduced Stauffer-Bern to the technique of engraving. Stauffer-Bern continued his study of engraving on his own, and quickly became one of the most talented print-makers of his time, creating an outstanding series of portraits of his family, his friends, and of leading Swiss and German personalities.

After the artist's return to Switzerland, an old school friend, Friedrich Emil Welti and his wife Lydia Welti-Escher became his most important patrons. The Welti-Eschers were well placed in Swiss society - Welti's father Emil Welti was a Federal Councilor, as was Lydia's father Alfred Escher, the wealthy Gotthard railway magnate and co-founder of Credit Suisse.

In 1888, the Welti-Eschers agreed to finance a stay in Rome for the artist. A year later the couple themselves decided to move to Florence, and Stauffer-Bern helped them to set up residence there. Shortly after their arrival, Friedrich Emil was called back to Switzerland on business, and Lydia and Karl found themselves alone together. A love affair began, and the couple left for Rome together. Friends who encountered them there worried that artist had fallen into a kind of madness. News of the affair reached Bern, scandalizing Swiss society to the extent that even the government - through emissaries in Rome - felt compelled to intervene. Lydia Welti-Escher was committed to an asylum, and Stauffer-Bern briefly sent to prison under trumped-up charges.

Stauffer-Bern was released from prison after several months, but he was a broken man, and within a few weeks, penniless and suffering from a nervous collapse, was committed to San Bonifazio clinic in Florence, one of the first hospitals for the mentally ill. While there he began composing poetic lyrics which he called "Songs of the Fool from San Bonifazio." His friend the German sculptor and author Adolf von Hildebrand was able to get him released several months later.

But back in Switzerland, Stauffer-Bern lived under the shadow of scandal and the sorrow that Lydia was reported to be back with her husband. The accusations under which he was imprisoned, although false, were not publicly cleared. He fell into a depression and attempted to shoot himself in the botanical gardens of Bern. The bullet closely missed his heart, and he survived. Stauffer-Bern returned to Florence to work, but the bullet wound caused him continuing pain, and he grew reliant on ever-increasing doses of the sleeping drug Chloral. On the morning of January 23, 1891, his doctor found him dead of an overdose, at the age of just 33. It remains unknown whether it was suicide or an accident. Karl Stauffer-Bern was buried in Agli Allori, the famous cemetary for foreigners in Florence.

Lydia Welti-Escher, who had left her husband, moved to a small chateau in Champel, Geneva. In December 1891, less than a year after Stauffer-Bern's death, she took her own life by opening the gas line in her villa.

The Museum of Fine Arts in Bern held a major retrospective of Stauffer-Bern's work in 2007 in commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the artist's birth. The exhibition was entitled "Verfluchter Kerl" which loosely translates as "That Bloody Guy." The reference is to a quote of Gottfried Keller’s uttered part in exasperation, part in admiration of the passionate spirit of his artist friend.


Karl Stauffer-Bern – Portrait of the Artist’s Sister Sophie Stauffer

Like many of Karl Stauffer-Bern’s engraved portraits, this study of his his sister is drawn nearly life size, a feature which gives it an extraordinary presence.

Text written in the plate:Karl Stauffer-Bern pinx, sculps seiner lieben Schwester 86.III

(Karl Stauffer-Bern pained and drew his beloved sister [18]86. III. )

Lehrs 08 / IX N – Neudruck published by Amsler * Ruthardt printed from the original plate as authorized by the arist’s youngest sister Amelie Stauffer sometime between 1891 and 1907.

Paper watermarked full center with a crown over a fleur de lys and the initials VGZ – Z. (Van Gelder watermarked laid paper).

Dimensions of sheet: 48 X 40 cm

Karl Stauffer-Bern was one of the greatest Swiss portraitists of the 19th Century. It is difficult to name another engraver who could equal his subtlety and mastery in depicting the human face. The beauty of the body of work Stauffer-Bern created during his short life combine with the tragedy of his personal destiny to make him one of the most fascinating Swiss artists.

Stauffer-Bern studied at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts, but upon returning to Bern discovered that the public there found his work "too realistic." In 1880, he took up a friend's invitation, and traveled to Berlin, where he began to build a reputation as a portrait painter and teacher. His students during his years in Berlin included the famous German artist Käthe Kollwitz, who took his class on portraiture, and on whom he had a profound influence. In 1884, the famous German etcher Peter Halm introduced Stauffer-Bern to the technique of engraving. Stauffer-Bern continued his study of engraving on his own, and quickly became one of the most talented print-makers of his time, creating an outstanding series of portraits of his family, his friends, and of leading Swiss and German personalities.

After the artist's return to Switzerland, an old school friend, Friedrich Emil Welti and his wife Lydia Welti-Escher became his most important patrons. The Welti-Eschers were well placed in Swiss society - Welti's father Emil Welti was a Federal Councilor, as was Lydia's father Alfred Escher, the wealthy Gotthard railway magnate and co-founder of Credit Suisse.

In 1888, the Welti-Eschers agreed to finance a stay in Rome for the artist. A year later the couple themselves decided to move to Florence, and Stauffer-Bern helped them to set up residence there. Shortly after their arrival, Friedrich Emil was called back to Switzerland on business, and Lydia and Karl found themselves alone together. A love affair began, and the couple left for Rome together. Friends who encountered them there worried that artist had fallen into a kind of madness. News of the affair reached Bern, scandalizing Swiss society to the extent that even the government - through emissaries in Rome - felt compelled to intervene. Lydia Welti-Escher was committed to an asylum, and Stauffer-Bern briefly sent to prison under trumped-up charges.

Stauffer-Bern was released from prison after several months, but he was a broken man, and within a few weeks, penniless and suffering from a nervous collapse, was committed to San Bonifazio clinic in Florence, one of the first hospitals for the mentally ill. While there he began composing poetic lyrics which he called "Songs of the Fool from San Bonifazio." His friend the German sculptor and author Adolf von Hildebrand was able to get him released several months later.

But back in Switzerland, Stauffer-Bern lived under the shadow of scandal and the sorrow that Lydia was reported to be back with her husband. The accusations under which he was imprisoned, although false, were not publicly cleared. He fell into a depression and attempted to shoot himself in the botanical gardens of Bern. The bullet closely missed his heart, and he survived. Stauffer-Bern returned to Florence to work, but the bullet wound caused him continuing pain, and he grew reliant on ever-increasing doses of the sleeping drug Chloral. On the morning of January 23, 1891, his doctor found him dead of an overdose, at the age of just 33. It remains unknown whether it was suicide or an accident. Karl Stauffer-Bern was buried in Agli Allori, the famous cemetary for foreigners in Florence.

Lydia Welti-Escher, who had left her husband, moved to a small chateau in Champel, Geneva. In December 1891, less than a year after Stauffer-Bern's death, she took her own life by opening the gas line in her villa.

The Museum of Fine Arts in Bern held a major retrospective of Stauffer-Bern's work in 2007 in commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the artist's birth. The exhibition was entitled "Verfluchter Kerl" which loosely translates as "That Bloody Guy." The reference is to a quote of Gottfried Keller’s uttered part in exasperation, part in admiration of the passionate spirit of his artist friend.


Early life and career

Barth was born in Basel, the son of Fritz Barth, a professor of New Testament and early church history at Bern, and Anna Sartorius. He studied at the universities of Bern, Berlin, Tübingen, and Marburg. At Berlin he attended the liberal theologian Adolf von Harnack’s seminar, and at Marburg he came under the influence of Wilhelm Herrmann and became deeply interested in the thought of the early 19th-century German theologian Friedrich Schleiermacher and in the nature of scientific method. After serving a curacy in Geneva from 1909 to 1911, he was appointed to the working-class parish of Safenwil, in Aargau canton. In 1913 he married Nelly Hoffman, a talented violinist they had one daughter and four sons.

The 10 years Barth spent at Safenwil as a minister of the Gospel were the formative period of his life. Deeply shocked by the disaster that had overtaken Europe in World War I and disillusioned by the collapse of the ethic of religious idealism, he questioned the liberal theology of his German teachers and its roots in the rationalist, historicist, and dualist thought that stemmed from the Enlightenment. Through study of the teaching of St. Paul in the Epistle to the Romans, he struggled to clarify the relation between justification and social righteousness, which governed all he had to say in later life about the relation of the Gospel to the power of the state and the oppression of the poor. Particularly important during this period were his visits to Bad Boll, where he met the Moravian preacher Christoph Blumhardt and gained an overwhelming conviction about the victorious reality of Christ’s resurrection, which ever afterward constituted for him both the starting point and the bedrock of his theology. His understanding of divine revelation was radically changed with the realization that the risen Christ meets and speaks to people in the Biblical revelation, for God himself incarnate in Jesus Christ is the content of his revelation. This resulted in a transformation of his interpretation and exposition of the Scriptures. Out of this experience came a series of passionate addresses, sermons, and popular expositions of the faith, in which he called for a return to the message of the Bible and to the theology of the Reformation. Some of these were later collected under the title Das Wort Gottes und die Theologie (1924 The Word of God and the Word of Man).


Karl Benz

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Karl Benz, in full Karl Friedrich Benz, Karl also spelled Carl, (born November 25, 1844, Karlsruhe, Baden [Germany]—died April 4, 1929, Ladenburg, near Mannheim, Germany), German mechanical engineer who designed and in 1885 built the world’s first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine.

What is Karl Benz famous for?

Karl Benz was a German mechanical engineer who designed and, in 1885, built the world’s first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine.

Did Karl Benz found Mercedes-Benz?

In 1926 the Benz company, founded by German engineer Karl Benz, merged with its competitor, Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, to form Daimler-Benz, maker of Mercedes-Benz automobiles.

When did Karl Benz die?

German engineer Karl Benz died on April 4, 1929, in Ladenburg, near Mannheim, Germany.

Although the original Benz car (a three-wheeled vehicle, the Motorwagen, now preserved in Munich) first ran early in 1885, its design was not patented until January 29, 1886. Benz & Co. was founded in Mannheim in 1883 to build stationary internal-combustion engines the company completed its first four-wheeled automobile in 1893 and produced the first of a series of racing cars in 1899. In 1926 the Benz company merged with Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft to form Daimler-Benz, maker of Mercedes-Benz automobiles. Benz had left the firm about 1906 to organize C. Benz Söhne in Ladenburg with his sons, Eugen and Richard. (The firm’s name reflected Benz’s sometime spelling of his first name as Carl.)


Karl Stauffer-Bern : Biography - History

(Bern, Switzerland, 1857 - Florence, Italy, 1891)

Karl Stauffer-Bern was one of the greatest Swiss portraitists of the 19th Century. It is difficult to name another engraver who could equal his subtlety and mastery in depicting the human face. The beauty of the body of work Stauffer-Bern created during his short life combine with the tragedy of his personal destiny to make him one of the most fascinating Swiss artists.

Stauffer-Bern studied at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts, but upon returning to Bern discovered that the public there found his work "too realistic." In 1880, he took up a friend's invitation, and traveled to Berlin, where he began to build a reputation as a portrait painter and teacher. His students during his years in Berlin included the famous German artist Käthe Kollwitz, who took his class on portraiture, and on whom he had a profound influence. In 1884, the famous German etcher Peter Halm introduced Stauffer-Bern to the technique of engraving. Stauffer-Bern continued his study of engraving on his own, and quickly became one of the most talented print-makers of his time, creating an outstanding series of portraits of his family, his friends, and of leading Swiss and German personalities.

After the artist's return to Switzerland, an old school friend, Friedrich Emil Welti and his wife Lydia Welti-Escher became his most important patrons. The Welti-Eschers were well placed in Swiss society - Welti's father Emil Welti was a Federal Councilor, as was Lydia's father Alfred Escher, the wealthy Gotthard railway magnate and co-founder of Credit Suisse.

In 1888, the Welti-Eschers agreed to finance a stay in Rome for the artist. A year later the couple themselves decided to move to Florence, and Stauffer-Bern helped them to set up residence there. Shortly after their arrival, Friedrich Emil was called back to Switzerland on business, and Lydia and Karl found themselves alone together. A love afair began, and the couple left for Rome together. Friends who encountered them there worried that artist had fallen into a kind of madness. News of the affair reached Bern, scandalizing Swiss society to the extent that even the government - through emissaries in Rome - felt compelled to intervene. Lydia Welti-Escher was committed to an asylum, and Stauffer-Bern briefly sent to prison under trumped-up charges.

Stauffer-Bern was released from prison after several months, but he was a broken man, and within a few weeks, penniless and suffering from a nervous collapse, was committed to San Bonifazio clinic in Florence, one of the first hospitals for the mentally ill. While there he began composing poetic lyrics which he called "Songs of the Fool from San Bonifazio." His friend the German sculptor and author Adolf von Hildebrand was able to get him released several months later.

But back in Switzerland, Stauffer-Bern lived under the shadow of scandal and the sorrow that Lydia was reported to be back with her husband. The accusations under which he was imprisoned, although false, were not publicly cleared. He fell into a depression and attempted to shoot himself in the botanical gardens of Bern. The bullet closely missed his heart, and he survived. Stauffer-Bern returned to Florence to work, but the bullet wound caused him continuing pain, and he grew reliant on ever-increasing doses of the sleeping drug Chloral. On the morning of January 23, 1891, his doctor found him dead of an overdose, at the age of just 33. It remains unknown whether it was suicide or an accident. Karl Stauffer-Bern was buried in Agli Allori, the famous cemetary for foreigners in Florence.

Lydia Welti-Escher, who had left her husband, moved to a small chateau in Champel, Geneva. In December 1891, less than a year after Stauffer-Bern's death, she took her own life by opening the gas line in her villa.

The Museum of Fine Arts in Bern held a major retrospective of Stauffer-Bern's work in 2007 in commemoration of the 150th anniversary of the artist's birth. The exhibition was entitled "Verfluchter Kerl" which loosely translates as "That Bloody Guy." The reference is to a quote of Gottfried Keller&rsquos uttered part in expasperation, part in admiration of the passionate spirit of his artist friend.

Sources for the above article
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Karl Marx: Early Life, Family and Education

Karl Marx was born on May 5, 1818, in Trier (then part of the Kingdom of Prussia's Province of the Lower Rhine) to Heinrich Marx and Henriette Pressburg. Karl Marx's father was a lawyer.

Karl Marx married Jenny von Westphalen in 1843 and the couple had seven children. However, due to the poor conditions in London (where Marx lived in exile), only three of them survived-- Jenny Caroline (1844–1883), Jenny Laura (1845–1911), Edgar (1847–1855), Henry Edward Guy ("Guido" 1849–1850), Jenny Eveline Frances ("Franziska" 1851–1852), Jenny Julia Eleanor (1855–1898) and the last one died before being named (July 1857). Karl Marx never used his original name while renting a flat to make it difficult for the authorities to locate him.

Marx received his early education by his father and in 1830 he took admission at Trier High School. In October 1835 at the age of 17, Marx travelled to the University of Bonn wishing to study philosophy and literature, but his father insisted on the law. Marx was excused from military duty when he turned 18 due to a condition referred to as a "weak chest". Marx joined the Poets' Club, a group containing political radicals that were monitored by the police at the University. Marx grades in the first term were good but later on, they deteriorated and his father admitted him at the University of Berlin.


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