Holland SS-1 - History

Holland SS-1 - History

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(SS-1:dp.64;1.53'10";b.10'3";dr.8'6";s.5k.;cpl.7; a.318"tt,18")

The first Holland was launched by Crescent Shipyards. Elizabeth, N.J., 1898, commissioned 12 October 1900, Newport, R I., Lt. Harry H. Caldwell in command.

On 16 October 1900, Holland left Newport under tow of tug Leyden for Annapolis where she trained cadets of the Naval Academy as well as officers and enlisted men ordered there to receive training so vital in preparing for the operation of other submarines being built for the Fleet.

Holland proved valuable for experimental purposes in collecting data for submarines under construction or contemplation. Her 166-mile surface run from Annapolis to Norfolk 8 to 10 January 1901 provided useful data on her performance underway over an extended period.

Except for the period 15 June to 1 October 1901. which was passed training cadets at the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I., Holland remained at Annapolis until 17 July 1905 as a training submarine.

Holland finished out her career at Norfolk. Her name was struck from the Navy Register of Ships on 21 November 1910. She was sold as scrap to Henry A. Hitner & Sons, Philadelphia, on 18 June 1913. Her purchaser was required to put up $5,000 bond as assurance that the submarine would be broken up and not used as a ship.

Dutch football flourished in the seventies. Led by Rinus Michels, Total Football was introduced to the world and with legendary player Johan Cruyff in the team, the Dutch were a formidable opponent. By employing attacking football and quick combinations plus scoring wonderful goals, Holland swept aside opponents like Brazil and Argentina. The Dutch national team looked to be on its way to becoming world champions, but host country West Germany spoiled the party by beating Holland 2-1 in the final.

Four years after the defeat in Germany, the Dutch national team were once again on the verge of victory in Argentina. Coach Ernst Happel had assembled a Dutch side that was able to reach the final again—this time without Johan Cruyff. Holland took on the host country. When the final went to extra time, the Argentines scored two goals to win 3-1.

By Naval Institute Archives

On St. Patrick’s Day, 1898, the USS Holland (SS-1) made her first successful submerged run. Irish-born American schoolteacher and inventor, John Phillip Holland (1842-1914) is often considered the man who contributed most to the development of the submarine.

The Story of the Holland Submarine by Richard Knowles Morris was told in the January 1960 issue of Proceedings magazine:

The story of SS-l Holland is the story of the birth of the submarine fleet of the United States Navy. Launched 17 May 1897, at Lewis Nixon’s Crescent Shipyard, Elizabethport, New Jersey, the 53-foot 4-inch submersible was the sixth completed boat and at least the ninth important design of the Irish­born American schoolteacher and inventor, John Philip Holland (1842-1914).

Fitting-out operations proceeded slowly that first summer of 1897. Financial support for the private venture of constructing Holland was hard to come by. It must have appeared to would-be investors that a better prospect was the submarine Plunger, government-backed and Holland designed, now nearing completion at the Columbian Iron Works in Baltimore. Plunger called for no risk of their capital to the strange diversion of effort in the private building of another submarine at Elizabethport. But John Holland was already convinced that he could improve on Plunger. This conviction led to the famous Holland.

Near catastrophe struck the little craft on 14 October 1897. A careless workman left a Kingston valve open. The boat sank at dock­side. Eighteen hours passed before it could be brought to the surface again. This event pre­cipitated a stringent reorganization within the John P. Holland Torpedo Boat Company. The part-time consulting engineer, Charles A. Morris, long standing friend of Holland’s, was persuaded to assume the duties of full-time superintendent. Days of effort to dry out the electric dynamo failed, yet to replace the motor would mean to dismantle the hull. The Electro-Dynamic Company of Philadelphia, makers of the motor, answered an urgent wire by sending its representative, Frank T. Cable, to Elizabethport. Arriving 26 November, Cable decided the motor could be dried internally by reversing the flow of current through the armatures. Four days later Holland was back in commission and an eminent name was added to the history of submarines.

On 24 February 1898 Holland was moved from Elizabethport down the Arthur Kill to a berth at the Raritan Dry Dock in Perth Amboy. In passage, it was the inventor’s purpose to attract as little attention as possible. The strange little craft, already labelled by the metropolitan press as “the wonder, the terror, and the monster,” caused an unexpected flurry of excitement. With rumors abroad that the governments of both France and Spain had bid for Holland, with tensions over the sinking of Maine at a breaking point and the Spanish cruiser Viscaya in New York Harbor, the navy dispatched the tug Narkeeta and a harbor police boat to watch the movements of Holland. Unaware of the commotion he was causing, John Holland escaped the vigilance of his pursuers and slipped unnoticed to a mooring behind an old canal barge along the Raritan docks.

Not until St. Patrick’s day of 󈨦 did Holland make her first successful run sub­merged. Failure to submerge three days earlier had resulted in much trial and error with dry ballast in order to reduce the positive buoyancy in the new waters of operation where the salinity was noticeably higher. By the end of March, the little vessel had ventured into the open waters of Princes Bay and had demonstrated remarkable stability in seas that drove much larger craft to shelter.

The Navy Department took increasing cognizance of the activities about Perth Amboy. On 15 April, Holland performed for Lieutenant Nathan Sargent, whose report led to the first Naval Board assigned to review the trial runs of the submarine. The result of these early attempts to secure official approval was to further refine steering and firing mechanisms.

Again the inventor shifted his site of operations, moving first to the Erie Basin, 50th Street, Brooklyn, and then to the Atlantic Yacht Club yards at the foot of 55th Street. Out of this latter base Holland successfully met some of her most difficult assignments ­ in the busy waters of the Narrows below Bay Ridge and in the open reaches of the Lower Bay. Her fame grew with each trial. During the summer of 1898, Holland’s log registered such personages as Captain Zalinsky, USA, inventor of the dynamite guns carried on the submarine, Lieutenant Commander (later Rear Admiral) W. W. Kimball, USN, staunch advocate of submarine warfare, Count Takashi Sasaki of the Japanese Navy, and Captain Stang of the Royal Norwegian Navy.

The crucial test of the year came on 12 November before a Review Board called by Secretary of the Navy Long, headed by Captain Frederick Rodgers and including Captain “Fighting Bob” Evans of Santiago fame. The Board was impressed with the performance, but the boat’s unpredictable yaw­ing when submerged clearly stood as a major obstacle to official acceptance.

After long debate, John Holland reluctantly abandoned a trade mark found in all his boats and yielded to the more conventional arrangement which brought the propeller inboard of the vertical steering and horizontal diving planes.

Like most other inventive geniuses, Holland was not a trained engineer, and it was inevitable that disputes should arise between him and his associates.. . . . His last years were embittered by the belief that the submarines of today (i.e. 1914) were distorted and worthless developments of his original type.

Indeed, a case may be made showing a recent return to the hydrodynamics embodied in the hull lines of Holland (as in the SS-569, Albacore) and a return to the outboard position of the propeller (as in the SS-585, Skipjack). However this may be, the major alterations on Holland took place at Morris Heights on the Harlem River during the winter of 1898-99.

The busy waters of New York Harbor several times brought the submarine close to disaster. The proximity of a large and curious public often hampered work. These factors prompted a further change in the site of operations. On 5-6 June 1899, a month after Holland’s return from Ireland, the boat was towed by the lighter Columbia from Brooklyn ‘ via Long Island Sound and Greenport to New Suffolk, L. I. At the Goldsmith and Tuthill Yard the Holland Torpedo Boat Co. and the newly formed Electric Boat Co. established their base. A marked three-mile course in Little Peconic Bay, east of Little Hog Neck (now Nassau Point) was completed in July, and the perfecting of Holland continued through the remainder of the summer.

Events in the quiet little town of New Suffolk often proved exciting. Cable, in The Birth and Development of the American Submarine (Harper & Brothers, 1924) reported the high spots: the submerged run with Clara Barton aboard, and the 11 October affair, when the crew and guests were overcome by exhaust fumes as Holland glided unmanned into the dock at the Goldsmith and Tuthill basin. Engineer Morris’s diary is replete with these and other details of the trials of that eventful summer.

After the November test before the third Naval Board, Holland left New Suffolk for the Washington Navy Yard on the Potomac, arriving at the capital in the middle of December. En route, the inland canals were lined with spectators. At Annapolis, cadets listened intently to the stories of the crew regarding submarine navigation. Then, on 14 March 1900, a Naval Board of Review, including Admiral George Dewey, watched Holland through her final paces off Mount Vernon. The Navy purchased the submarine, 18 April, and sent it to Newport, R. I., where officials of the Holland Company trained the navy crew. Lt. Harry H. Caldwell, secretary for Admiral Dewey, assumed command at the commissioning ceremonies on 12 October 1900.

Thus Holland became the first sub­marine of the United States Navy, prototype for the seven A-class boats which followed and the basic design for the initial submarine fleets of Great Britain and Japan. John Philip Holland deserves the title conferred on him by historians: the man who contributed most to the development of the submarine.

Holland SS-1 - History

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An idea that transformed into a global enterprise

The Electric Storage Battery Company, which would one day become Exide Technologies, was founded by W.W. Gibbs in 1888. Gibbs, an executive at a prominent Gas company, saw the potential of electricity as a source of lighting, and set out on his own. He purchased the patents of Clement Payen, a French inventor who advanced electrical storage, and began transforming those ideas into reliable commercial products.

W.W. Gibbs’ intuition was correct. Electrical storage was set to play a bigger role in society — far bigger than he originally imagined. As transportation technology — and the energy storage capabilities it required — advanced, Exide evolved with it. Exide batteries were present when Commander Byrd established an American military base in Antarctica. Exide batteries powered wakeless torpedoes in World War II and stored the solar energy that charged NASA’s first lunar landing module. By 1987, the company’s product line was capable of powering practically every vehicle on American roads.

Exide Technologies’ former EMEA and Asia-Pacific business now operates as a standalone company under new owners. On October 27, 2020, the battery manufacturer announced the ‘closing of the deal’, successfully concluding its separation from the Exide Technologies Holdings in the US and the transfer of its entire business to a group of long-term shareholders, under the US-based Energy Technologies Holdings LLC.

From Diesel to Nuclear: A Submarine Revolution Revisited

Individuals and institutions are basically wary of change, even though they understand intuitively that it is inevitable. This wariness is generally not a bad thing it provides a degree of inertia that moderates the rate of change. It also serves to make it a carefully considered process. Most often this caution is not resistance to the new but rather a healthy questioning process on how change is applied (as well as how fast it is to happen). History is full of examples of transformations made in haste that led to unfavorable outcomes. Thoughtless newness is not always better than a working status quo.

It should be recognized that cultural change in the military almost always results from technological change. New machines and devices facilitate better ways of doing things. People need to be trained how to operate and maintain new things. Then military planners have employ them to find out how warfare doctrines must be changed. Because this is all people-intensive, their existing culture must change along with the technologies

Looking Back

Though there was little public notice at the time, the diesel-boat era ended in the U.S. Navy on 15 January 2007 with the decommissioning of the USS Dolphin (AGSS-555). The real curtain had come down a few months earlier, in September 2006, when the last crew left and the inactivation period began.

What an era it was. The submarine service started in 1900 with the gasoline-powered Holland (SS-1). The first boat equipped with diesels was the USS F-1 (SS-20), which was commissioned in 1912. During the next 42 years—a period that encompassed two World Wars—the diesel submarines compiled an enviable record. Even so, there were limitations in the capabilities of vessels that had to come to the surface frequently. They needed to ingest copious amounts of air to run their engines and charge the storage batteries that propelled them when they were underwater, and for their crews to keep breathing.

In 1954 the Navy commissioned the Nautilus (SSN-571), the first nuclear-powered undersea craft and thus the first true submersible. She could cruise for weeks at a time submerged, generating oxygen for her crew so they could operate without exposure to the atmosphere. Over time, more and more of the nuclear craft went into service, both attack submarines and those capable of firing ballistic missiles armed with nuclear warheads. And, over time, more and more diesels were phased out. The last full-fledged diesel attack boat, the Blueback (SS-581), departed in 1990.

That left the Dolphin as the last survivor, and she lived into the 21st century by carrying out her missions as a deep-diving research vessel. In recent years, diesel-only submariners were no long available to crew her. Those veterans had long since retired or gone on to other pursuits. The men who cycled through the boat in her final years of service had earned their dolphins in nuclear vessels and brought their skills with them to the older breed. Since the nuclear ships are equipped with auxiliary diesels, the machinist's mates had learned there to operate the engines that powered the Dolphin.

In the spring of 2006, as the boat's period of active service was winding down, I had the pleasure of going aboard for a hands-on visit that included a climb down into the engine room. Each of her 400-horsepower diesels was the type used to power buses on city streets—not exactly the forefront of technology, but she also had cutting-edge components. Commissioned in 1968, this boat sported some interesting anachronistic juxtapositions.

She still had the same mainframe sonar that was original equipment. But her role as an experimental boat also meant that she had state-of-the-art gear on board for testing. For instance, she had an obstacle-avoidance sonar and another used for bottom mapping. Her deep-diving capability enabled her to reach the bottom even when it was more than 3,000 feet below the surface of the sea. Her last operational skipper, Commander Andy Wilde, had to master the seamanship required to moor on the seafloor for some of her research work on behalf of the Navy and other "customers." This was a far cry from his previous billet as executive officer of the 18,700-ton, 560-foot boomer USS Maine (SSBN-741).

Probably the most striking thing about the Dolphin was her size—or actually the lack of it. She was only 152 feet long and displaced 861 tons, far less than the nuclear-powered behemoths now roaming the seas. Her mess compartment, which was used at various times by both enlisted crew members and the officers, had a table that seated only six. She had 45 bunks for a crew of 52 that required hot-bunking at times and leaving some crewmen ashore at others. The officers' room/captain's office was a space with a desk, a chair, and three bunks stacked vertically. Befitting the privilege that went with rank, skipper Wilde got the middle bunk.

Over bug juice and coffee at that small mess table, the skipper and chief of the boat, Joe Eller, talked about their roles in this one-of-a-kind and last-of-a-kind. They talked of their pride in the crew and the submarine, the honor of serving in the Dolphin, but also the lament that their future on board grew shorter day by day. Their remaining operations would be few, and they were winding down the clock on the time when they would know each other as shipmates.

A few months after I met these men, they gathered in their dress uniforms for the inactivation ceremony on 22 September 2006. Many others who had worn dolphins on board previous boats gathered to pay honor to this last of the breed. They shared the hope that the boat would be preserved as a museum, and that hope is ongoing. On that day, the last crew of the Dolphin said their good-byes to their boat and to each other. The Navy's last diesel submarine remains with them now only in their memories.

The Death of the Holland Grill

Somewhere in the mid-1970s, Brad Holland became frustrated with his gas grill. It flared up. It burnt his food. And in general, it angered him that such a simple device could cook so poorly. For 12 years Brad worked to improve the gas grill, and in 1988 he began selling The Holland Grill.

It was unique in fact, it went against all conventional thinking. The solution to flare-ups was simple, though many would say extreme. The Holland Grill separated the food from the burner with a solid sheet of metal. Flare-ups were impossible because fat drippings never hit the flame. However, neither did the food.

The Holland Grill required an explanation. Marketing gurus will tell you that this is a death sentence. This grill sold well for many years, but what made it so unique? The Holland Grill has a single, small, round cast-iron burn. In many models, it produced around 15,000 BTUs or less than half of comparably sized grills. The burner sits under a heavy sheet of steel that isolates it from the cooking chamber. No access to the flame means those drippings can’t catch on fire. So, no flare-ups.

The cooking grate has a diamond pattern steel surface. While durable and lightweight, but not designed to produce grill marks. Then again the Holland Grill doesn’t produce those sorts of

Holland Liberty Gas Grill

temperatures anyway. In fact, with the original design, the control valve is either on or off. There is no adjustment. These grills hold a consistent temperature around 350 to 375 degrees F. The perfect temperature range for baking, but not what most consumers expect from a gas grill.

The real strength of the Holland Grill was its versatility. It cooked like an oven and a grill at the same time, with the ability to make burgers one day and lasagna the next. The Holland cooking chamber let little airflow through. A pair of vents on the top could be opened to let heat out, but food wouldn’t dry out quickly. It seemed this grill was nearly foolproof. Simply turn it on, add the food, and check back now and then.

But wait, there’s more. If you put liquid in the watertight cooking chamber below the cooking grate, it steams. Place wood chips on the metal divider sheet, and it will smolder and produce smoke. Close the top vents to hold the steam or smoke inside. Clambakes, smoked ribs, a holiday turkey, name it and this grill could do it. It was this versatility that drove its loyal fandom for nearly two decades.

Nearly 22 years ago, when I started writing about barbecue and grilling, I was told to be careful about criticizing two products, the Big Green Egg and the Holland Grill. Fans were fanatical. For both products, the loyal would gather in parks and parking lots to show off their cooking skills, swap recipes, and techniques. As you can imagine, the users of the Holland Grill were a force to be reckoned with.

Brad Holland and his family-owned business were more than a company looking to sell a grill. They took an active part in the industry. As contributors to trade shows and organizations, they promoted outdoor cooking and helped grow the market space. Holland Grill remained a mainstay at these events, cooking a wide range of food as people flocked around for samples.

At the time, Holland was the ideal small American business producing domestic grills. They deeply embedded themselves into the Mom and Pop grill stores. No big box stores sold their grills, but small local places pushed their product to anyone who walked through the door. The sales pitch always started with the same line, “Do you have a problem with flare-ups and burnt food.” For many, it was a pitch that worked.

Unfortunately, it seemed that a properly cared for Holland Grill could last for decades. Some of the earliest models are still in use today. While customers remained loyal, they seldom needed a replacement unit. Sales growth was driven by loyal Holland fans who purchased new grills for their kids, parents, and friends. While this brought in new users, it wasn’t the kind of growth that made Holland a big company. It stayed in the family, local, and small. Ultimately, quality played a part in the death of the Holland Grill.

Times change. If you think about how the Holland Grill works you might find yourself comparing it to a Pellet Grill. Yes, Holland and Traeger came up together. But where Traeger created a niche market, Holland remained what it was, a very specialized grill for a select few who understood its merits.

Holland did have imitators. Phoenix Grills is a duplicate of the Holland Grill and is still in production today under new ownership. Fans launched an attack against Phoenix, but for a short time, there was a narrow market space for both. Phoenix went bankrupt before being acquired by Modern Home Products.

On June 14, 2019, Holland Grill closed its doors. Fans will continue to use this product, but the company is gone. It can be argued that the Holland Grill and its imitators are not traditional grills and that they functioned as a minor blip in the history of outdoor cooking. The truth is that few products in the industry have had that type of loyalty. The demise as a company has much to do with the durability of the product as it does with current market changes. Indeed, pellet grills and the need for smoke have cut into the gas grill space. However, you look at it the loss of the Holland Grill Company is a loss to the industry.


Political map of the Netherlands. Holand consists of the provinces of North Holland and South Holland.

The maritime region of Holland is located on the North Sea at the mouth of the European rivers of Meuse and Rhine. Holland is bordered by the inland bay Ijsselmeer and four other provinces of the Netherlands in the east. Covering a total area of 7,511 km 2 , the region of Holland comprises several rivers and lakes. A long line of coastal dunes protects the region from the sea. Located in the Schoorise Dunien is the highest point in Holland, which rises to an elevation of only 55 m. A major portion of the area behind these coastal dunes is composed of polder landscape, low-lying tracts of land situated below sea level. Located in South Holland near the city of Rotterdam is a polder that is positioned about 7 m below sea level, and is considered as the lowest point in Holland. Several windmills are found across the landscape of Holland, which were previously used for continuous drainage and preventing the area from flooding.

Located in North Holland is Amsterdam, the capital, largest and the most populous city of the Kingdom of Netherlands. The Port of Rotterdam is located in South Holland and is Europe’s largest and the most significant seaport. Also located in South Holland is The Hague, the third-largest city and administrative center of the Netherlands. It also hosts the International Court of Justice. These three major cities together with the city of Utrecht and several other small municipalities together form a large metroplex, the conurbation of Randstad.

Submarine History - 20th Century

In the year 2000 the American submarine force celebrated the first century of service by highly skilled people in some of the most technologically advanced vessels ever built. The previous 100 years witnessed the evolution of a force that mastered submersible warfare, introduced nuclear propulsion to create the true submarine, and for decades patrolled the deep ocean front line the hottest part of an otherwise Cold War.

The Navy to acquired its first submarine in 1900. Overcoming competition from fellow American inventor, Simon Lake, Holland sold his newest model, Holland VI , to the Navy for $160,000 on 11 April. This 64-ton submarine was commissioned as USS Holland , or SS-1 , on 12 October of the same year.

For his sixth submarine, Holland introduced a new method of propulsion using a gasoline engine. Holland designed a small, lightweight gasoline engine that turned a propeller while the boat cruised on the surface. The engine ran a generator, a machine that produces electricity, to charge batteries necessary to run an electric motor during underwater operations. Although the gasoline engine worked well on paper, the engine had flaws. Gasoline is highly flammable and unstable. Using this fuel in a confined environment, such as the submarine, endangered the crew. Another danger were the batteries that ran the electric motor during underwater travel. They were heavy, bulky, terribly inefficient, and potentially explosive. Finding a safer means of propulsion was needed if the submarine was ever to submerge for long periods of time. Around the same time Holland was creating his submarines, German scientist Rudolf Diesel developed an excellent substitute for the gasoline engine. Diesel's engine used a fuel that was more stable than gasoline and could be stored safely. The engine also did not need an electric spark to ignite the fuel, adding another element of safety. These advantages, plus improved fuel economy, granted submarines with Diesel engines longer and safer cruises on the surface. While underwater, batteries were still necessary to provide power.

Due to the volatility of gasoline, American submersible designs soon followed the French practice, adopting the diesel engine in 1909 with the Electric Boat Company's F class (SS-20 through 23), built at Union Iron Works in San Francisco. After 1909, Diesel engines would be used in American submarines for nearly 50 years.

Combining the influence of diesel propulsion with the submersible designs of Holland and Lake, American submersibles took on a familiar configuration through American entry into the Great War. Submarines of the E, H, K, L, M, N, O, and R classes ranged in displacement from 287 to 510 tons, with the fastest boats displaying a top surface speed of barely 14 knots on diesel power.

During World War I the U.S. Navy separated these submersibles into two groups according to mission. "Boats" of the N and O classes, as well as some of the E type, patrolled American coasts and harbors following a defensive strategy.

Other submarines drew assignments that sent them to hostile European waters after 1917. Some K-, L-, O-, and E-class boats conducted offensive, open-sea operations from the Azores and Bantry Bay in Ireland. They supported the Allied effort to maintain open sea lanes along the European coast and in the approaches to the British Isles.

The Navy Department's plans for these vessels reflected the prevailing surface warfare thinking, which perceived the submersible as a type of destroyer or torpedo boat that should operate with the battle fleet. Thus the first foray into submarine design by the Bureau of Construction and Repair and the Bureau of Steam Engineering produced the faster 15-knot, 800-ton, S-class submarine in 1916 with the assistance of Electric Boat Company and Lake Torpedo Boat Company. At virtually the same time, Electric Boat received a commission to design the three boats of the 20-knot T, or AA class, with a normal displacement of 1107 tons. On paper these characteristics, adopted during the First World War, brought the Navy one step closer to the "fleet submarine," a submersible that could keep pace with the battle fleet.

The German U-boats of the 1914-1918 conflict gave American officers and designers reason for pause. Physically durable, powered by very reliable diesels, technically blessed with very long sea legs, they provided the paradigm for American interwar development. At the same time, the 1916-vintage American S-class proved a virtual clinic for basic design mistakes, burdened with difficult metallurgical problems and very unreliable diesels.

While Rear Admirals Harry Yarnell and Samuel Robinson, successive interwar chiefs of the Bureau of Engineering, worked to remedy the technical flaws with solutions from European and American engineering practice, the community of submarine officers struggled with a problem even more fundamental than propulsion. How should the Navy use submarines? What was their proper strategic role? During the interwar period influential officers like Captains Thomas Hart and Yates Stirling Jr., Admirals Henry Wiley and Frank Schofield, and the innovative Commander Thomas Withers debated these issues with the German paradigm in mind. Unfortunately, this model did not offer easy direction. While the German commercial warfare strategy and independent patrol tactics had great effect on the war effort of the Entente and its allies, incidents like the sinking of the passenger liner RMS Lusitania painted this style of warfare with a dark brush, suggesting immorality when submersibles operated without restriction.

Only a subtle formula could help American submariners address questions of identity and mission in such a political environment. Since the state of design and propulsion technology would not permit American industry to build a submarine durable and fast enough to keep pace with the battlefleet, operating with surface ships on a regular basis seemed unlikely. This forced submarine strategists like Withers to look more closely at independent patrols and a model that approximated the World War I German experience. In isolationist postwar America, however, this option brought with it the ethical burden of unrestricted U-boat warfare and civilian casualties, something a Navy diminished by the Washington Treaties did not care to assume. Thus, American submarine strategy could not include unrestricted submarine warfare, which might turn neutral commercial vessels and innocent civilians into victims.

American officers realized that war in all of its brutality, not peacetime politics or worthy ethical concerns, would determine the future challenges faced by the submarine force. In spite of official policy, the boats under construction in the 1930s reflected assertive, offensive strategic thinking as the country came to terms with the Depression under Franklin Roosevelt and the Bureaus of Construction and Repair and Engineering resolved the submarine engineering and propulsion dilemmas. The new Salmon - Sargo designs were intended for long-range independent patrols, with requisite food, fuel, and weapons capacity. In addition, the fleet exercises and war game scenarios during the late 1930s permitted these vessels to attack warships, convoy escort ships, and even certain convoys identified as critical to enemy logistical support. By 1940, the submarine force had answered its fundamental strategic questions and had the vessels to carry out the consequent roles and missions. Thus, when Admiral Thomas Hart proclaimed unrestricted submarine warfare against Japan on 8 December 1941, it came as no surprise. The submarine force knew what to do.

At the outbreak of hostilities with Japan on December 7, 1941, the United States had a number of small diesel-powered submersible ships (known, somewhat improperly, as "submarines) in the United States Navy. The lessons taught by successful German U-Boat campaigns in the Atlantic and the necessities of war in the Pacific dictated the need for large fast vessels that could run fast on the surface, bombard shore-based and surface targets with deck guns, conduct effective anti-aircraft defense, and remain in service during prolonged cruises with as many as 24 torpedoes, 40 mines, and fuel and food for 90 days.

Upon entering the war, the United States began turning out subs as fast as possible, and continued to do so on through WWII. The purpose of a submarine during WWI and WWII was simply to sink other ships. These "Fleet Boats" worked in concert with the surface fleet to track down and eliminate threats, often well into enemy controlled seas. Fleet boats, aesthetically, are little different from their surface counterparts - they had a flat deck, a pointed prow or nose, a conning tower, and surface armament in the form of several anti-aircraft machine guns and a larger deck gun for use against lightly-armored surface vessels. The batteries of these older subs did not store enough electricity to allow the ship to stay under for very long. Because of this, the ships were designed for maximum surface handling characteristics, where they spent the majority of their time.

These early submarines only submerged to escape detection. The U.S. Balao class, for instance, had a battery endurance of 48 hours at a meager two knots. Battery power was drained more quickly if the sub tried to travel faster. On the surface the fleet boats kept up with surface ships, maintaining a speed of about 21 knots. When submerged, most fleet boats could only dive to a maximum of around 400 feet. This is shallow compared to modern subs, which can dive to more than twice that depth.

The American submarines in WWII included three separate types or classes, Gato, Balao, and the later Tench, which were all virtually identical. Some 311 feet long with a beam of 27 feet, these fleet ships were made to knife through the water on the surface. Gato and Balao were heavily armed with ten torpedo tubes, six forward, four aft. They carried a large store of torpedoes, but were also armed with more conventional weapons as well. Balao, the most numerous class of American fleet subs, was armed with a forward facing five-inch deck gun, and four machine guns, which was a typical arrangement at the time. Each sub carried a limited store of torpedoes, no matter how long their patrol might be. Often commanders would opt to save a torpedo and sink a stricken enemy vessel with surface weapons, unless the target was heavily armored.

Employing the extremely reliable boats of the Gato , Balao , and Tench classes, the submarine force scored the most complete victory of any force in any theater of the war. In spite of a hesitant beginning due to the Pearl Harbor surprise and difficulties with defective torpedoes, the submarine force destroyed 1,314 enemy ships for 5.3 million tons which translated into fifty-five percent of all enemy ships lost. Out of 16,000 submariners, the force lost 375 officer and 3,131 enlisted men in fifty-two submarines, the lowest casualty rate of any combatant submarine service on any side in the 1939-1945 conflict.

While the Japanese advanced quickly after Pearl Harbor and the Navy struggled to recover from 7 December 1941, the submarine force brought the war to the enemy operating from Pearl Harbor, and Australian bases at Freemantle, and Brisbane. Submarines played a variety of roles in the war effort, demonstrating the versatility of stealth.

Among those allied warships regularly able to penetrate Japanese controlled areas, American submarines had extraordinary success against both Japanese merchantmen and warships. In the late summer of 1942, Lieutenant Commander Henry C. Bruton in command of USS Greenling on her third war patrol destroyed 32,050 tons of enemy merchant shipping and damaged a 22,000 ton converted carrier. Bruton ended the war ranked thirteenth among the submarine force's aces.

Refining their methods of attack made American submariners the worst enemy of any ship flying the Japanese flag. In early 1943, USS Wahoo put to sea on her third war patrol under the command of Lieutenant Commander Dudley W. Morton. Morton and his executive officer, Lieutenant Richard O'Kane, implemented and further refined a new method of attack suggested by Admiral James Fife, commander of the American submarines operating out of Brisbane. While O'Kane manned the periscope and made all of the observations, Morton was left free to evaluate the entire combat situation, making possible swift, informed, and effective approach and attack decisions.

The talent of Morton and O'Kane as well as their new command and control procedure enabled Wahoo to sink 31,890 tons of Japanese shipping on that patrol. Morton received the first of four Navy Crosses and his ship took home a Presidential Unit Citation. Later in the war, as commanding officer of USS Tang , Richard O'Kane received the Congressional Medal of Honor and became the Submarine Force's leading ace of the war, credited with destroying 31 ships for 227,800 tons.

In addition, Submarines played both humane and special operations roles in their campaign against Japan. In many of the hardest fought battles of the war submarine crews rescued unlucky carrier pilots who ended up in the sea, like future president George Bush. Fleet submarines also delivered troops tasked with special missions against Japanese Pacific strongholds. In August 1942, USS Nautilus [SS-169] and USS Argonaut [SS-166] delivered Marine Colonel Evans F. Carlson's "Raiders" to Makin Island. Upon completing their mission to reconnoiter the island and destroy its most important facilities, the two submarines picked up the Marines and returned to Pearl Harbor.

In the final months of the war, American submarines had difficulty finding targets because the Japanese had virtually no ships left to sink. Undaunted, submarine, submarine commanders pursued the enemy into his harbors and hiding places. Employing newly developed FM sonar sets, American submarines penetrated the minefields of closely guarded Japanese home waters to seek out warships and supply ships at anchor. There was no place to hide. The silent victory was complete.

In the conflict against Japan in World War II, the role and importance of the submarine forces of the United States cannot be overestimated. American submarines sank more than 600,000 tons of enemy warships and more than 5,000,000 tons of merchant shipping, thus destroying much of Japan's ocean commerce. This was accomplished by a force that never numbered more than two percent of naval personnel engaged in the war. The American submarine war against Japan created a blockade that denied her the oil, iron ore, food, and other raw materials she needed to continue to fight. By 1945 this submarine war made it impossible for any Japanese ship to sail the ocean. Without this commerce and the raw materials it supplied to her war effort, Japan found it impossible to continue the war outside of the homeland. No other WWII submarine remains that sank more ships than the USS Silversides.

Typically Dutch

When you think about Holland, you probably think of tulips, windmills and cheese. These and other icons can be found throughout Holland. Friesland and Zeeland are wonderful provinces for cycling tours, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland are the place to discover art by Vincent van Gogh, Bosch and other Dutch masters, and traditional cheese can be enjoyed in Limburg. Unique in Holland: Drenthe boasts prehistoric remains, such as the megalithic tombs called hunebeds. If the weather turns cold enough, ice-skating enthusiasts can register for the Elfstedentocht. This route on natural ice takes you to eleven Friesian cities. If there is no ice, the cities are well worth a visit even when the weather is good.

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